Chemical elements
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
    Cuprous Compounds
      Cuprous hydride
      Cuprous fluoride
      Cuprous chloride
      Cuprous bromide
      Cuprous iodide
      Copper suboxide
      Cuprous oxide
      Cuprous hydroxide
      Cuprous sulphide
      Cuprous sulphite
      Cuprous sulphate
      Cuprous selenide
      Cuprous telluride
      Cuprous nitride
      Cuprous phosphide
      Cuprous arsenides
      Cuprous carbide
      Cuprous acetylide
      Cuprous carbonate
      Cuprous cyanide
      Cuprous thiocyanate
      Cuprous silicide
      Cuprous silicofluoride
      Ammonio-cuprous Derivatives
      Carbonyl cuprous sulphate
    Complex Copper Compounds
    Cupric Compounds
    PDB 1a2v-1bxu
    PDB 1bxv-1fwx
    PDB 1g3d-1j9t
    PDB 1jcv-1mfm
    PDB 1mg2-1paz
    PDB 1pcs-1sii
    PDB 1sjm-1w6w
    PDB 1w77-2afn
    PDB 2ahk-2dv6
    PDB 2dws-2ggp
    PDB 2ghz-2mta
    PDB 2nrd-2vm3
    PDB 2vm4-2yah
    PDB 2yam-3bkt
    PDB 3bqv-3fyi
    PDB 3g5w-3mie
    PDB 3mif-3t6v
    PDB 3t6w-9pcy

Cuprous Compounds

Compounds in which the copper appears as monovalent are numerous, although the corresponding monovalent cuprion, Cu, is scarcely known. In other words, compounds belonging to such a monovalent series are known in the solid state, but not, in a state of purity, in solution.

In the oxidation of heated copper in the air, a red oxide is first formed, the composition of which is Cu2O, and which is therefore called cuprous oxide. On being further heated in the air, it is converted into black cupric oxide; on removing this black coating, however, from a piece of oxidised copper, it is found to be generally red coloured on the side next the metal, i.e. to consist of cuprous oxide.

The corresponding cuprous hydroxide, Cu2(OH)2, or Cu(OH), is obtained as a brick-red powder by the decomposition of cuprous chloride, to be presently mentioned, with caustic potash or soda.

In nature cuprous oxide occurs as red copper ore, and is a very highly valued ore on account of its richness in copper; it can readily be converted into metallic copper by reduction with charcoal.

Cuprous oxide is also formed as the product of reduction of Fehling's solution with grape-sugar and similar substances, and can be prepared in this way. In moist air it is oxidised to cupric oxide or to basic carbonate.

On treating cupric oxide or hydroxide with acids, not the corresponding cuprous, but the cupric salts are generally formed, and half of the copper is deposited in the metallic state as a blackish-red powder. With sulphuric acid, for example, the reaction takes place according to the equation Cu2O + H2SO4 = Cu + CuSO4 + H2O. On considering the ions the process can be interpreted as taking place in such a way that cuprous sulphate is first formed, the monocuprion of which, however, immediately undergoes transformation into dicuprion and metallic copper: 2Cu = Cu•• + Cu. The solution contains dicuprion to a preponderating extent, but it is in accordance with the general relations to assume that it is a case of chemical equilibrium between the two ions and the metallic copper, in which a large concentration of dicuprion is opposed by a very slight concentration of monocuprion.

If instead of sulphuric acid a halogen hydracid, thiocyanic acid, or some other acid which can form a very sparingly soluble cuprous salt, is taken, the above decomposition does not take place, and the respective cuprous compounds are formed. This is explained by the fact that monocuprion is present only in a negligibly small amount in the solution produced, since, of course, the salts are sparingly soluble. The decomposition of monocuprion into dicuprion and metal can therefore take place only to an inappreciably slight extent.

Some Cuprous Compounds

Cuprous hydride, CuH
Cuprous fluoride, CuF
Cuprous chloride, CuCl
Cuprous bromide, CuBr
Cuprous iodide, CuI
Cuprous oxide, Cu2O
Cuprous hydroxide, CuOH
Cuprous sulphide, Cu2S
Cuprous sulphite, Cu2SO3
Cuprous sulphate, Cu2SO4
Cuprous selenide, Cu2Se
Cuprous telluride, Cu2Te
Cuprous nitride, Cu3N
Cuprous phosphide, Cu3P
Cuprous arsenides
Cuprous carbide Cu2C2
Cuprous acetylide, Cu2C2
Cuprous carbonate Cu2CO3
Cuprous cyanide, CuCN
Cuprous thiocyanate, CuCNS
Cuprous silicide, Cu4Si
Cuprous silicofluoride, Cu2SiF6
Carbonyl cuprous sulphate, (CuCO)2SO4
Ammonio-cuprous Derivatives
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