Chemical elements
  Copper
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Production
    Application
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
    Cuprous Compounds
    Complex Copper Compounds
    Cupric Compounds
      Cupric hydride
      Cupric fluoride
      Cupric chloride
      Copper hydroxide
      Cupric bromide
      Cupric iodide
      Cupric chlorate
      Cupric bromate
      Cupric iodate
      Cupric periodates
      Cupric oxide
      Copper peroxide
      Cupric hydroxide
      Cupric sulphide
      Cupric polysulphides
      Cupric sulphite
      Cupric sulphate
      Copper Sulphate
      Cupric selenide
      Cupric selenite
      Double Copper Selenates
      Cupric telluride
      Cupric dithionate
      Cupric tetrathionate
      Cupric hydrazoate
      Cupric nitrite
      Cupric nitrate
      Cupric phosphide
      Cupric hypophosphite
      Cupric phosphite
      Cupric orthophosphate
      Cupric pyrophosphate
      Cupric metaphosphate
      Cupric arsenate
      Cupric metantimonite
      Cupric pyroantimonate
      Cupric metantimonate
      Cupric acetylide
      Cupric carbide
      Cupric carbonates
      Cupric cyanide
      Cupric thiocyanate
      Cupric silicates
      Cupric metaborate
      Cupric acetate
    PDB 1a2v-1bxu
    PDB 1bxv-1fwx
    PDB 1g3d-1j9t
    PDB 1jcv-1mfm
    PDB 1mg2-1paz
    PDB 1pcs-1sii
    PDB 1sjm-1w6w
    PDB 1w77-2afn
    PDB 2ahk-2dv6
    PDB 2dws-2ggp
    PDB 2ghz-2mta
    PDB 2nrd-2vm3
    PDB 2vm4-2yah
    PDB 2yam-3bkt
    PDB 3bqv-3fyi
    PDB 3g5w-3mie
    PDB 3mif-3t6v
    PDB 3t6w-9pcy

Cupric chloride, CuCl2






The anhydrous Cupric chloride, CuCl2, is produced by heating copper or cuprous chloride in chlorine, or by dehydrating the dihydrate by heating at 150° C. in an atmosphere of hydrogen chloride, or by addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to its aqueous solution. It is a brownish-yellow, hygroscopic solid, melting at 498° C., of density 3.054. It is readily soluble in water and organic solvents. Its heat of formation from its elements, calculated from the interaction of cupric oxide and hydrochloric acid, is given as 51.63 Cal. And 51.4 Cal. It is decomposed by heat into the cuprous salt and chlorine.

The dihydrate, CuCl2,2H2O, is prepared by evaporating a solution of cupric oxide or carbonate in hydrochloric acid; or by evaporating a solution of cupric sulphate and sodium chloride, the dihydrate crystallizing out after sodium sulphate and chloride; or by addition of barium chloride to a solution of cupric sulphate, filtering, and concentrating. It crystallizes in green, deliquescent, rhombic prisms, but a blue, nondeliquescent form has also been described. The density of the dihydrate is 2.47 to 2.535. Its solubility at 17° C. is 43.06 grams in 100 grams of water. A trihydrate, CuCl2,3H2O, exists at low temperatures.

Numerous basic cupric chlorides have been described, although some of them may not be true chemical compounds. As examples of these substances may be cited the green, rhombic crystals of the mineral atacamite, CuCl2,3Cu(OH)2,wH2O, containing a varying proportion of water; the crystalline compound CuCl2,3Cu(OH)2, formed from brown cupric hydroxide and cupric-chloride solution; and the compound CuCl2,3CuO,2H2O, formed by the interaction of solutions of potassium hydroxide and cupric chloride.

Among the double salts of cupric chloride with other metallic salts may be mentioned CuCl2,LiCl,2H2O, a red compound; other examples are CuCl2,2KCl,2H2O; CuCl2,KCl2; and CuCl2,2NiI4Cl,2H2O. References to the literature of other double salts are appended.

In alcoholic solution cupric chloride combines with nitric oxide to form a double compound of the formula CuCl2,NO.


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